Speaking of small pet dogs and companion dogs, people immediately think of Pomeranians. Because they are extremely outgoing, lively and cute, they are very popular among pet lovers. The Pomeranian is native to Germany and belongs to a kind of fox. Early Pomeranians were relatively large, and most of them had white hair. Since the 19th century, it has gradually developed into today’s small dog breeds through selection, breeding and breeding. The Pomeranian is now a small breed of petting dogs.

Pomeranian morphological characteristics

Because the Pomeranian’s cheerful, loyal, friendly, and small size has attracted the attention of pet lovers, Pomeranian, as a small dog-watching dog, can’t just look at its small appearance. In case of emergencies, Pomeranian They will also show their mighty state, protect themselves and their masters, and occasionally act like a baby. The Pomeranian needs to be tidyed up regularly, so it is not suitable for people who are too busy in life without free time. Gorgeous fur requires not only frequent trimming, but also careful grooming every day. Because of the thick body hair and the large amount of hair removal during the molting period, it should be cleaned and taken frequently, and bathing once a week is advisable. Due to their small size, female dogs are more likely to have dystocia.
Pomeranian’s morphological characteristics
One, standard
A. Choose those with a round head and short and compact body. B. Those with soft, upright, and fluffy back hair. C. Two eyes and nose are in a regular triangle. Such a Pomeranian can be called a beautiful-faced dog. D. The front shoulder blades should be high and the chest should be high. To be well-developed, fore and hind limbs upright and without dislocation E. The end of the tail can be rolled or not rolled, but the starting point of the tail should be high, close to the back and straight on the back. F. Strong physique, with a sense of weight when hugged.
Second, appearance
The head is commensurate with the body, and most of the whole body is white. It looks noble. From a distance, it looks like a furry sphere, which is likable. The weight range of Pomeranian is 3-7 pounds, and the ideal weight for competition-level Pomeranian is 4-6 pounds. Any dog ​​that does not reach this weight or exceeds this weight is unwelcome. In any case, overall quality is more important than size. Body length (length from shoulder to hip) should be slightly smaller than shoulder height, and the distance from chest to floor equal to half of shoulder height. The bones are medium, and the length of the legs is in balance with the body structure. It should feel strong when touched.
The skull is tightly closed, the skull is slightly rounded, but not arched. The head is commensurate with the body, the muzzle is short, straight, and delicate, and can open his mouth freely without appearing rude. Scissor bite. One missing tooth is acceptable.
When looking from the front or the side, small ears that are high and erect can be seen. The ears are small and the distance between the two ears is not too large. The upright ears are better, and the shape is like fox ears. If you imagine a line starting from the tip of the nose and passing through the middle of the eyes and the tip of the ears, you can see that Hiromi’s head is wedge-shaped. (Main defects: too round, arched skull with prominent upper jaw; prominent lower jaw.) The eyes are dark, bright, medium-sized and almond-shaped. They are located on either side of the prominent stop on the skull. The expression is wary, it can be said to be a bit like a fox.
Hiromi’s nose and eye circles are black, except for brown, beaver, and blue Hiromi, which match the color of his own coat.
Four, face
Nose: The nose is round, small and black. (The nose of the brown fox is dark brown) Muzzle: The muzzle is not too long, and is in harmony with the skull. (In fluffy wolfhounds/keeshonds and medium-sized foxes, the ratio of muzzle length to skull length is about 2:3, and in small foxes and toy foxes, the ratio is about 2:4).
Lips: The lips are not exaggerated, they are close to the jaws, and do not form any folds at the corners of the mouth. (The lips of the brown fox dog are brown, and the other colors are black) Jaw/Teeth: Both jaws develop normally, 42 teeth form a complete scissor bite, which conforms to the rules of dog teeth, that is, the upper and lower teeth are pressed tightly, and the two jaws are square. . (In small foxes and toy foxes, the lack of premolars is allowed. In all foxes, clamp bite is also acceptable) Cheeks: round, not protruding.
Eyes: medium size, long, slightly oblique, almond. black. The eyelids are black in various shades (the eyelids of the brown fox are dark brown).
Ears: The small ears are located high, relatively close to each other, triangular, pointed, upright, with hard tips.
Neck: Medium length, wide, slightly arched, without larynx, thick coat, rich coat forming a huge feather jaw.
Five, body
Topline: The topline starts from the upright ear tip and merges with the short and straight back into a soft curve. The thick coat, broom-like tail covers part of the back, making it perfect.
withers/back: The high withers slowly falls and joins with the short, straight, and strong back.
Waist: The connection is short, wide and strong.
Buttocks: wide, short, and not collapsed.
Chest: The deep chest expands naturally, and the front chest develops well.
Abdominal line: The chest extends back as far as possible; the abdomen is only slightly folded upwards.
Tail: high position, medium length. Extend upward, curl forward on the back, with straight roots. It lies tightly on its back, covered by a very dense coat. The tip of the tail can also be double curled.
Six, precursor
is straight and the front is quite wide. The shoulder blades are long and naturally inclined back. The upper arm is approximately the same length as the shoulder bone and forms an angle of 90 degrees with it.
The shoulders are muscular and firmly connected to the chest. The elbow joint is strong, close to the chest, neither valgus nor varus. The forearms should be of medium length, firm, and straight. The back of the forearm is well decorated.
Metacarpal bones (plastic bones) The strong, moderate-length anterior plastic bones form an angle of 20 degrees from the vertical when standing. The front feet are as small as possible, round and compact, so they are called cat feet, with naturally arched toes. The toenails and soles are black in various shades, but the corresponding parts of brown dogs are dark brown.
Seven, hindquarters
The hindquarters are very muscular, and the hock is covered with a rich coat. The hind legs are straight and parallel to each other when standing. The upper and lower thighs are approximately the same length. The posterior knee joint is strong, with a proper angle, and neither valgus nor varus. The metatarsals (hock joints) should be of medium length, very strong and perpendicular to the ground. The hind feet should be as small as possible, compact and naturally arched, so they are called cat feet. Rough soles. The color of the nail should be as black as possible.
Gait/Motion: The German Fox Terrier moves straight forward, drives well, and moves consistently and elastically.
Skin: The skin is tight, without any wrinkles.
Eight, hair
The German Fox Terrier has a double coat: the upper coat is long, straight, and upright, and the lower coat is short, thick, and cotton-like. The head, ears, front sides of the front and rear legs, and feet are covered with short, thick (soft) hair. The rest of the body has a long and rich coat. Does not curl, wavy or rope, and does not separate on the back. The neck and shoulders are covered with thick bristles. The fur on the back of the forelegs is good. The hind legs are richly decorated from the buttocks to the hocks. The tail is like a broom.
Nine, color
1. Fluffy wolfhound/ Keeshond: various shades of gray.
2. Large Fox Terrier: black, brown, white.
3. Medium-sized Fox Terrier: black, brown, white, orange, dark gray, other colors.
4. Small Fox Terrier: black, brown, white, orange, dark gray, other colors. Color Pomeranian e) Toy Fox Terrier/Squirrel Terrier: black, brown, white, orange, dark gray, other colors.
A. Black Fox Terrier: In the black Fox Terrier, the lower coat and skin must also be black, and the upper layer must be bright black, without any white or other colored spots.
B. Brown Fox Terrier: Brown Fox Terrier should always be dark brown.
C. White Fox Terrier: Its coat should be pure white, and there should be no other colors, especially yellow spots. This phenomenon usually appears in the ears.
D. Orange Fox Terrier: Orange Fox Terrier should be uniformly colored in the middle color range.
E. Dark gray Foxhound / Keeshond: Dark gray dog ​​is a silver-gray dog ​​with a black tip. The muzzle and ears are dark black; the eyes are surrounded by obvious eye frames, from the corner of the eye to the lower corner of the eye like a black line drawn with a pencil, connected by characteristic spots and shadows, forming expressive short eyebrows; The mane and ring trim on the shoulders are lighter in color. Except for the pencil-like light spots on the toes, there are no dark spots on the elbows or under the knee joints of the front and rear legs; the tail and under the “trousers” are light silver-gray.
F. Other colors of foxes: The term “other colors” includes colors of all shades, such as cream, cream-grey, orange-grey, black plus tan, and variegated colors (usually white as the main color). Black, brown, gray or orange spots must be distributed throughout the body.
十. Dimensions (to the height of the withers):
1. Fluffy wolfhound / Keeshond 49 cm +/- 6 cm.
2. Large Fox Terrier 46 cm +/- 4 cm.
3. Medium-sized foxes 34 cm +/- 4 cm.
4. Small Fox Dog 26 cm +/- 3 cm.
5. Toy Fox Terrier/Squirrel Dog 20 cm +/- 2 cm.
eleven, weight
Each type of German Foxdog should have a weight that is compatible with its size.

Pomeranian character characteristics

Although the individual Pomeranian is small and does not seem to be outstanding, the Pomeranian raised in the family is often spoiled, and Pomeranian will often show his personality and mood to express his state at this time. Here is a brief description of the characteristics of the Pomeranian.
Pomeranian character
1. Rich expressions
What is thinking in the little Pomeranian’s head never requires the owner to bother to think about it. It wags its tail when it is happy, and barks when it is unhappy. If it wants to play, it will jump on your lap. If you set your mind on playing, just go away. They never lie, nor are they ashamed to express their opinions.
2. Friendly and kind
Pomeranian has a lively, naughty, and intelligent personality, and is very easy to integrate into the family. But under normal circumstances, they will be very close to a family member and regard him as a leader. They like to be petted, and for those he trusts, Pomeranians will play with them unreservedly. As for those who don’t like it, it will stay away.
3. Nosy
This little guy Pomeranian loves to be nosy. If you quarrel with your family, you will find that the unwilling dog will immediately join the battlefield. “Bong Wang Wang” is arguing with you, and I don’t know if it came to persuade or fight. Come join in the fun.
4. Lively and active
Pomeranian is also a natural mischief. Regardless of its size, its destructiveness is first-rate. This requires strict discipline from its owner.
5. Acting like a baby
acting like a baby is a good Pomeranian. They will act coquettish when they see you smiling; they are lonely and boring, they act coquettish when they need your company; they act coquettish when they are tired from walking outside and want you to hug them; they act coquettish when they are hungry or when they want toys. Inferior. If the dog is right and you scold it, it will immediately quarrel with you, showing its spooky nature.
6. Smart and trainable
Generally speaking, dogs can learn instructions and skills through training. The smarter the dog, the easier it is to train. Pomeranian is just such a dog. Because Pomeranian has a better personality, he often makes mistakes. Do not listen to instructions. At this time, the owner should not intimidate and beat him.

Pomeranian maintenance knowledge

Pomeranian has flowing and fluffy hair. The trimmed Huang Bomei looks more like a little raccoon and is cute and active. Therefore, many people like him. Pomeranian is one of the most beautiful dog breeds. They can’t tolerate any shortcomings in their body. So how to maintain Pomeranian in daily life?
reduce body odor
Generally speaking, the body odor of Pomeranian is relatively small among all dog breeds, so many dog ​​owners choose to keep Pomeranian. But after breeding, it was found that some Pomeranians still have a smelly smell. In fact, these smells are not caused by the dog, but by the dog’s bad breath and ears, which can be avoided and reduced by the owner.
Dog’s bad breath is an important source of bad odor, so pay attention to check the problems caused by dog’s tooth stones. Therefore, the owner should pay attention to washing the dog’s teeth regularly to effectively control the dog’s dental calculus, so that the dog can have a good breath.
Dogs’ ears often have peculiar smells. In fact, as long as the owner uses the correct method to clean the earwax, this can be reduced. The presence of earwax can help the ears fight foreign diseases. The colors of earwax are white, light yellow, and yellow. The shape of earwax is normal from powder, lumps to ooze, but it must be cleaned regularly, otherwise normal ears will have problems. Good taste is produced.
Anal glands are the most important source of dog odors. Anal glands have the function of helping dogs identify their identity. Because each dog’s anal gland tastes different, the most common actions dogs do when they meet are apart from kissing each other. Foreigners, just smell each other’s ass. In addition, when a dog lives in the wild, anal gland fluid will be left on the flowers and grass when passing through the grass to mark the dog’s sphere of influence. However, dogs living at home, because of the lack of exercise and the reduced muscle strength of the legs, cannot push the excess anal gland fluid out, causing the anal glands to accumulate and cause blockage and swelling. At this time, the anal glands will be bad. The smell can cause inflammation, bleeding and even rupture. Therefore, when bathing the dog, the owner can help the dog clean the anal glands to keep the dog healthy.
The body shape of the standard Pomeranian dog should be full of beauty and vitality, full body and sufficient hair, gentle temperament, very energetic when walking, and cheerful expression. The shaft of its head is very long and the head cover is flat. The ears only occupy a very small part of the head, and the face should be short. The eyes are sunken and ovoid, giving people a small and elegant feeling. The chest should not be too wide, and it should be a straight line from the throat, chest to the forelegs. The base of the tail is slightly higher, not too low, and the long and thick fur should be kept on the central part of the back.
Generally, the whole body hair is cut into a round shape with scissors. In order to maintain a good body shape and neatness when trimming, the hair should be combed and trimmed with a comb, and the tip of the ear should be cut into a round shape. The base of the tail is cut wide with electric shears so that the tail curls up from the back to the ears. The claws should be cut short, and the long hair on the toes should be cut short to look like cat feet.
In short, there are many ways to groom a dog. Each person can combine the characteristics of the dog’s body according to specific conditions, according to the requirements of learning from each other’s strengths, concealing defects, and highlighting advantages. Please choose the appropriate grooming method to show the dog’s “saucy and heroic” and make your dog more beautiful, healthy and cute!
Suggestion: In order to avoid body odor on Hiromi body, give Hiromi a bath once a week in summer and once every 10-15 in winter. Vaccinate Pomeranian dogs on time every year, and deworm them both internally and externally.

Pomeranian feeding points

Don’t underestimate the Pomeranian’s small posture. It will always look like a child who can’t eat enough when eating. Now people tend to pet dogs. Almost everything they need is: toys, snacks, staple food, including the owner’s usual life. Delicacies for the dogs and so on. A healthy diet cannot be given according to the dog’s food requirements.
Feeding points
Every owner of a Pomeranian will prepare some snacks for the Pomeranian more or less, and treat the Pomeranian as a snack and snack for the Pomeranian in the morning or afternoon. Sometimes the owners will also use snacks to train Pomeranians, because this can train their dogs more quickly and successfully. Because there are many types of Pomeranian snacks, you must pay attention to the method when choosing snacks for the Pomeranian. Only snacks suitable for the Pomeranian can be eaten. Don’t give all the snacks to the Pomeranian or eat it for the Pomeranian. More snacks, otherwise it is not good for the health of the Pomeranian.
1. Health and nutrition
The only requirement of the owners for the growth of Pomeranians is healthy and unhealthy snacks, which can also easily cause indigestion, constipation, and physical discomfort in the Pomeranian. So when choosing snacks for Pomeranians, choose nutritious foods. Such as beef jerky, chicken jerky and so on.
2. Rich snack mix
Do not feed a single snack to the Pomeranian for a long time. This will easily cause the Pomeranian to anorexia, lack of nutrition, and slow down the growth of the Pomeranian. When choosing snacks, you can choose a variety of products, such as jerky, biscuits and so on. With a rich product mix, Pomeranian can change snacks with different flavors every day to ensure the freshness of the Pomeranian’s food, and the body’s absorption of nutrients will not be delayed.
3. Easy-to-store snacks
You can choose foods that have been stored for a long time as much as possible, and the snacks you buy back can not be eaten in a short time, so the storage time and quality are very important. You can choose dry snacks as much as possible, and store them at room temperature for a longer time.
4. Snacks and main meals should not be confused
Pomeranian snacks can never replace the main meal. The owner should provide Pomeranian snacks while ensuring that the Pomeranian can eat normally every day. For example, when you go out for a stroll, take a walk, and provide Pomeranians with appropriate snacks when relaxing on the grass, it is the best care for the Pomeranian.
The healthy growth of the Pomeranian is completely under the care of the dog’s parents. They show great love for the Pomeranian, but cannot be spoiled. Spoiling a Pomeranian too much will have some bad problems, such as being disobedient, picky eaters, etc., which is not good for the owner.
Families raising Pomeranians should prepare some snacks at home from time to time. Snacks have many functions. They can not only serve as food for the Pomeranian temporarily, but also temporarily replace the meal when the owner has no time to prepare food for the Pomeranian. It can help the owners to train faster than Pomeranians, which not only meets the Pomeranian’s demand for food, but also plays the biggest role of snacks, and at the same time increases the feelings between the owners and the Pomeranian. Snacks are more useful, but unreasonable giving will cause health problems for dogs. After all, snacks have more additives, and eating too much is bad for the body.

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